This is the "Writing and Citing" page of the "African Studies" guide.
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Writing and Citing in African Studies

Check with your professor/supervisor regarding  citation style required in your respective subject area.



APA Style refers to guidelines developed by the American Psychological Association for authors. The APA style uses an author-date system of citation, in which brief citations within the text direct the reader to the corresponding entries in the reference list at the end of the paper.

The entries in this list provide the full publication information for the sources used for the paper, allowing readers to trace these sources for their own use.



MLA style refers to guidelines developed by the Modern Languages Association for documenting sources cited in a paper. The MLA style is widely used in humanities disciplines.

It uses a two-part system, in which brief in-text citations point to corresponding entries in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the paper. The entries in the alphabetical reference list provide the complete publication information for each source cited in the paper.

This information allows readers to trace sources for their own use.


Online Writing Lab

Looking for on-line tips on writing and citing?  Visit the Purdue University Online writing Lab -- OWL.  Here you will find in-depth information on writing style guides like the APA (6th and newest edition) and MLA,and tips on how to improve your writing and avoid various writing pitfalls

African Studies Librarian

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Olive Akpebu Adjah
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Institute of African Studies Library
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